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" This blog is all about Information i come across in everyday life; Even though you can get these information anywhere from the internet; my utmost objective will be to present the data, as precise and crisp as possible"

Friday, 31 August 2012

Motion Induced Blindness

Speeding car drivers often swear that they just didn't see the "slower moving vehicle" coming from the left or right, during a motor accident.  It may seem that they're obviously bluffing; but the fact is they really don't see the vehicle coming from the side, in spite... of broad daylight. This phenomenon on the car drivers’ part is known as “Motion Induced Blindness”. It is unbelievable but it is true, and it is definitely frightening.

The bottom line of Motion Induced Blindness is such that, if you fix your gaze on one object long enough while you yourself are in motion, your peripheral vision goes blind.

 Armed forces pilots are taught about motion induced blindness during training, because it happens faster at high speeds; and to some extent it is applicable to car drivers also, especially the fast ones. So, if you drive a car, please read this carefully. Once airborne, pilots are taught to alternate their gaze between scanning the horizon and scanning their instrument panel, and never to fix their gaze for more than a couple of seconds on any single object. They are taught to continually keep their heads on a swivel and their eyes always moving (otherwise, the peripheral vision goes blind temporarily; and so, motion induced blindness). For fighter pilots, this is the only way to survive in air; not only during aerial combat, but from peacetime hazards like mid-air collisions as well.

Still not convinced?!?!
Let me give you a small demonstration of motion induced blindness. This is the same demonstration that is used for trainee pilots in classrooms before they even go near an aircraft. 
Just click on the link below. 
You will see a revolving array of blue crosses on a black background. There is a flashing green dot in the center and three fixed yellow dots around it. If you fix your gaze on the green dot for more than a few seconds, the yellow dots will disappear at random…, either singly, or in pairs, or all three together. In reality, the yellow dots are always there. Just watch the yellow dots for some time to ensure that they don’t go anywhere!

So, if you are driving at a high speed on a highway and if you fix your gaze on the road straight ahead, you will not see a car, a scooter, a buggy, a bicycle, a buffalo or even a human being approaching from the side. Now reverse the picture. If you are crossing a road on foot and you see a speeding car approaching…, there’s a 90% chance that the driver isn’t seeing you, because his/her peripheral vision may be blind! And you may be in that blind zone!

Drive Safe! Walk Safe!

Wednesday, 15 February 2012

Sitting with your Wallet on your back can cause Piriformis Syndrome

Ever thought that sitting on a bench with your wallet in your back pockets would do harm to your spine?!?!........Yes it does!.....Read on,

Most guys carry that half inch or so leather padding in their hip pocket all the time.   Obviously, with a wallet tucked between your cheek and your chair, you’ve created an unlevelled surface.  After all, this matter of fact is not a rocket science, but a common sense.  This is something which we are not focusing in our daily life but can produce multiple problems in spine especially for those who have long sitting hours.  Your wallet can be real pain for your back and the waist, and it can lead to shooting pains down the legs.  Sitting on a wallet for prolonged hours every day can compress sciatic nerve which passes beneath piriformis muscle and leads to piriformis syndrome.

Piriformis Syndrome: A neuromuscular disorder that occurs when the sciatic nerve (the largest and widest single nerve in the human body that begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb) is compressed or otherwise irritated by the piriformis muscle causing pain, tingling and numbness in the buttocks and along the path of the sciatic nerve descending down the lower thigh and into the leg.  The syndrome may be due to anatomical variations in the muscle-nerve relationship, or from overuse or strain. [Source: Wikipedia]

The wallet acts as a wedge that forces the pelvis, spine and body out of alignment.   Anyone who drives more than a half hour sitting on a wallet is a candidate for sciatica or back pain.  The risk in this case is not a life-threatening one. But you probably are increasing your chances of having a bad back, or making a bad back even worse.  The healthiest option is to move the wallet to your front pocket.  If it’s must to keep your wallet in your back pocket, you should remove it before you sit (Not only wallet, but don’t sit with anything in your back pocket).

Tuesday, 14 February 2012

Airline : " Black Box"

The "black box" is a generic term for two recording devices carried aboard commercial airliners. The Flight Data Recorder (FDR) records a variety of parameters related to the operation and flight characteristics of the plane. The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) records the voices of the flight crew, engine noise, and any other sounds in the cockpit. All large commercial airliners and certain varieties of smaller commercial, corporate, and private aircraft are required by law to carry one or both of these boxes, which generally cost between $10,000 and $15,000 apiece. The data these devices provide is often invaluable to experts investigating the events leading up to an accident. The recovery of the boxes is one of the highest priorities in any mishap investigation, second only to locating survivors or recovering the remains of victims. FDR information is also often used to study other aviation safety issues, engine performance, and to identify potential maintenance issues.  


         The design of modern black boxes is regulated by a group called the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The ICAO determines what information the black boxes must record, over what length of time it is saved, and how survivable the boxes must be. The ICAO delegates much of this responsibility to the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) that maintains a document called the Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems. 
These early devices used magnetic tape for data storage, much like that used in a tape recorder. As the tape is pulled over an electromagnetic head, sound or numerical data is recorded on the medium. Analog black boxes using magnetic tape are still present aboard many planes, but these recording devices are no longer manufactured. Newer recorders instead use solid-state memory boards, called a Crash Survivable Memory Unit (CSMU), that record data in a digital format. Instead of the moving parts present in older recorders, solid-state devices use stacked arrays of memory chips similar to a USB memory stick. The lack of moving parts eases maintenance while reducing the chance of a critical component breaking in a crash. Solid-state recorders can also save considerably more data than older magnetic tape devices and are more resistant to shock, vibration, and moisture.  

Magnetic Tape from within the FDR of 'EgyptAir' that crashed in 1999
Whatever the medium used to record the data, the purpose of the black boxes is to collect information from various sensors aboard an aircraft. The Cockpit Voice Recorder, for example, saves sounds from microphones located on the flight deck. An area microphone is typically placed in the overhead instrument panel between the pilots, and an additional microphone is located in the headset of each member of the flight crew. These microphones pick up conversations between the flight crew, engine noises, audible warning alarms, landing gear sounds, clicks from moving switches, and any other noises like pops or thuds that might occur in the cockpit. The CVR also records communications with Air Traffic Control, automated radio weather briefings, and conversations between the pilots and ground or cabin crew. These sounds often allow investigators to determine the time of key events and system failures. 

Analog magnetic tape recorders are required to store four audio channels for at least 30 minutes while digital solid-state devices are required to record for two hours.   Both types use continuous recording such that older information is written over as new data is collected beyond the maximum time limit. 

Sample Data Recovered from a Flight Data Recorder

The Flight Data Recorder collects data from a number of sensors to monitor information like accelerations, airspeed, altitude, heading, attitudes, cockpit control positions, thermometers, engine gauges, fuel flow, control surface positions, autopilot status, switch positions, and a variety of other parameters. Most parameters are recorded a few times per second but some FDRs can record bursts of data at higher frequencies when inputs are changing rapidly. 

The data measured by the different sensors is collected by the Flight Data Acquisition Unit (FDAU). This device is typically located in an equipment bay at the front of the aircraft beneath the flight deck. The FDAU assembles the desired information in the proper format and passes it on to the FDR at the rear of the plane for recording. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) required the FDR to record between 11 and 29 parameters, depending on aircraft size, up to 2002 but now requires saving a minimum of 88 sets of data. Analog FDRs can save a maximum of around 100 variables while digital recorders are often capable of collecting over 1,000 parameters over the course of 25 hours. 

Diagram of Data Flow to Aircraft Black Boxes

Power for the black boxes is provided by electrical generators connected to the engines. The generators on most large airliners produce a standard output of 115 volt, 400 hertz AC power while some smaller planes instead generate 28 volt DC power. Black boxes are typically designed to use only AC or DC power but not either one. Recorders built for compatibility with the AC power supplies on larger planes cannot be used on small DC-powered aircraft. In the event of engine failure, larger aircraft are also equipped with emergency backup power sources like the auxiliary power generator and ram air turbine to continue operating the black boxes. In addition, the ICAO is considering making a battery mandatory on solid-state recorders to provide an independent power supply in the event of a complete power failure aboard the plane. 

A common misconception states that the black boxes are "indestructible." No manmade device is indestructible, and no material has ever been developed that cannot be destroyed under severe enough conditions. The black boxes are instead designed to be highly survivable in a crash. In many of the worst aviation accidents, the only devices to survive in working order are the Crash Survivable Memory Units (CSMUs) in the black boxes. The remainder of the recorders, including the external case and other internal components, are often heavily damaged.  

Interior cut-away of a Black Box Design

The CSMU, however, is contained within a very compact cylindrical or rectangular box designed to safeguard the data within against extreme conditions. The box is composed of three layers to provide different types of protection to the recording medium. The outermost shell is a case made of hardened steel or titanium designed to survive intense impact and pressure damage. The second layer is an insulation box while the third is a thermal block to protect against severe fire and heat. Together, these three layered cases allow the FDR and CVR to survive in all but the most extreme crash conditions. 

Current regulations require the black boxes to survive an impact of 3,400g's for up to 6.5 milliseconds. This rapid deceleration is equivalent to slowing from a speed of 310 miles per hour (500 km/h) to a complete stop in a distance of just 18 inches (45 cm). This requirement is tested by firing the CSMU from an air cannon to demonstrate the device can withstand an impact force at least 3,400 times its own weight. The black boxes must also survive a penetration test during which a steel pin dropped from a height of 10 ft (3 m) impacts the CSMU at its most vulnerable point with a force of 500 pounds (2,225 N). In addition, a static crush test is conducted to demonstrate that all sides of the CSMU can withstand a pressure of 5,000 pounds per square inch for five minutes. The fire resistance of the CSMU is further tested by exposing it to a temperature of 2,000F for up to an hour. The device is also required to survive after lying in smoldering wreckage for ten hours at a temperature of 500F.

Underwater Locator Beacon on a Black Box

Other requirements specify survivability limits when immersed in liquids. The CSMU must endure the water pressure found at an ocean depth of 20,000 ft (6,100 m), and a deep-sea submersion test is conducted for 24 hours. Another saltwater submersion test lasting 30 days demonstrates both the survivability of the CSMU and the function of an Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB), or "pinger," that emits an ultrasonic signal once a second when immersed in water. These signals can be transmitted as deep 14,000 ft (4,270 m) and are detectable by sonar to help locate the recorders. A final series of tests includes submerging the CSMU in various fluids like jet fuel and fire extinguishing chemicals to verify the device can withstand the corrosive effects of such liquids. 

Upon completion of the testing, the black boxes are disassembled and the CSMU boards are extracted. The boards are then reassembled in a new case and attached to a readout system to verify that the pre-recorded data written to the device can still be read and processed. 

Another factor important to the survivability of the black boxes is their installation in the tail of the aircraft. The exact location often varies depending on the plane, but the FDR and CVR are usually placed near the galley, in the aft cargo hold, or in the tail cone. The recorders are stored in the tail since this is usually the last part of the aircraft to impact in an accident. The entire front portion of the plane acts like a crush zone that helps to decelerate the tail more slowly. This effect reduces the shock experienced by the recorders and helps to cushion the devices to improve their chances of surviving the crash. 

Flight Data Recorder Recovered from United Airlines 93 in 2001

Once the black boxes have been located following an accident, they are typically taken into custody by an aviation safety agency for analysis. In the United States, responsibility for investigating most air accidents belongs to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). Many countries lacking the capability to analyze black boxes also send their recorders to the computer labs of the NTSB or some of the better-equipped investigative organizations in Western nations. Care must be taken in recovering and transporting the recorders so that no further damage is done to the devices that might prevent important data from being extracted. 

Upon receipt of the recorders, the NTSB uses a series of computer and audio equipment to process and analyze any information that can be recovered. The data is translated into formats readily usable by investigators and is usually critical in identifying the probable cause(s) of the accident. This process may take many weeks or months depending on the condition of the black boxes and the level of processing required to make sense of the data. Outside experts are also often consulted to help analyze and interpret the data.  

Animation image created using FDR data from the American Airlines 587 that crashed in 2001

Flight Data Recorder information is typically presented in the form of graphs or animations used to understand instrument readings, flight characteristics, and the performance of the aircraft during its final moments. Cockpit Voice Recorder information is usually more sensitive and laws strictly regulate how it is handled. A committee including representatives of the NTSB, FAA, the airline, the manufacturers of the aircraft and engines, and the pilots union is responsible for preparing a transcript of the CVR's contents. This transcript is painstakingly created using air traffic control logs and sound spectrum analysis software to provide exact timing. Although the transcript can be released to the public, only select and pertinent portions of the actual audio recording are made public due to privacy concerns. 

Flight recorder design has improved considerably since the devices were first introduced in the 1950's.  However, no recording device is perfect.  Black boxes are sometimes never found or too badly damaged to recover some or all of the data from a crash.  To reduce the likelihood of damage or loss, some more recent designs are self-ejecting and use the energy of impact to separate themselves from the aircraft.   Loss of electrical power is also a common event in aviation accidents, such as Swissair Flight 111, when the black boxes were inoperative for the last six minutes of flight due to aircraft power failure.  Several safety organizations have recommended providing the recorders with a backup battery to operate the devices for up to ten minutes if power is interrupted. 


Monday, 13 February 2012

Naval Codes / NATO Phonetic / NATO Spelling Alphabet

             The NATO Phonetic alphabet or the NATO spelling alphabet is the universally accepted or widely used 'spelling alphabet'.  When communicating over the phone; these codes are used, so that the person on the other end will be able to figure out exactly what the other person is trying to spell, regardless of their native language.

For example, If you are to spell BLOGGER; normally we would say something like this

B as in Bell,
L as in Lemon
O as in Orange
G as in Grape
E as in Elephant
R as in Ring

But instead, try practicing by spelling your name or objects with Naval Codes, which will provide a point-blank understanding to the other, and at the same time it's universally understood.

 NATO Phonetic Alphabet

A --- Alpha    

B --- Bravo       

C --- Charlie     

D --- Delta    

E --- Echo      

F --- Foxtrot     

G --- Golf           

H --- Hotel

I --- India       

J --- Juliet          

K --- Kilo           

L --- Lima     

M --- Mike     

N --- November      

O --- Oscar     

P --- Papa

Q --- Quebec    

R --- Romeo        

S --- Sierra    

T --- Tango     

U --- Uniform     

V --- Victor     

W --- Whiskey    

X --- X-Ray      

Y --- Yankee        

Z --- Zulu

Best & the most common Latin Phrases / Sayings

Nisi dominus frustra = ‘if not the master, in vain’; unless the lord is with us, our labor is vain.

bona fide = In good faith

Vox populi = The voice of the people

Viva voce = Orally

Modus operandi = Method of working

Ad hoc = To this (particular purpose)

Alma Mater = Fostering mother

Curriculum vitae = The course of a life

Quid pro quo = One thing for another

Carpe diem = Seize the day

Annus mirabilis = Wonderful year

Annus horribilis = A terrible year.

Ego =  consciousness of one's own identity.

et cetera (abbreviated etc.) =  and so on.

habeas corpus = you may have the body. (The opening words of a prerogative writ requiring a person holding another person to bring that person before a court.)

affidavit =  a sworn written statement usable as evidence in court.

Agenda =  things to be done (used especially for a list of items to be discussed at a meeting).

alma mater = one's old school or university.

alter ego = other self.

anno domini (abbreviated AD) =  in the year of the Lord.

ante meridiem (abbreviated a.m.) = before midday.

post meridiem (abbreviated p.m.) = after midday.

aqua pura =  pure water.

cogito, ergo sum = I think, therefore I am (Descartes).

deo gratias = thanks be to God.

deo volente = God willing.

dictum meum pactum = my word is my bond.

dictum sapienti sat est = a word to the wise is sufficient.

in deo speramus = in God we trust.

in re = in the matter of.

in silico = by means of a computer simulation.

in situ = in its original situation.

in vitro = observable in a glass test tube; outside the living body and in an artificial environment.

in vivo = happening within a living organism.

magnum opus = great work.

mea culpa = by my fault (used as an acknowledgement of one's error).

Memorandum = (a note of) a thing to be remembered.

modus operandi = the manner of working.

post mortem = after death (also figuratively).

Re = in the matter of.

requiescat in pace = rest in peace.

status quo = the existing condition.

Verbatim =  exactly as said.

Versus = against.

vice versa = the order being reversed.

videlicet (abbreviated viz.) = namely.

Divide et impera = Divide, and rule

E pluribus unum = From many, one

Ab initio = From the beginning

Ad astra = To the stars

cui bono = To whose good?

Non compos mentis  = Not of sound mind

Caveat emptor = Let the buyer beware

De profundis = Out of the depths

Nota bene = Note well

Inter alia = Among other things

Nil desperandum = Never despair

Tempus fugit = Time flies

Sub rosa = In secret

Tabula rasa = Clean slate; 

Sine qua non = An essential condition

Obiter dictum = Said in passing

Non sequitur = Irrelevant

Hic jacet = Here lies

Hic et nunc = Here and now

Ipso facto = By the fact itself

In flagrante delecto = In the act of crime

Nec plus ultra = perfection

Ex officio = By virtue of his office

Floreat = May it flourish

Fidei Defensor = Defender of the faith

Persona non grata = An unacceptable person

Per se = In itself

Quod erat demonstrandum = Which was to be demonstrated

A priori = From cause to effect

Corpus delecti = The body, or substance of a crime

Cum grano salis = With a grain of salt

Infra dig = Below one’s dignity

Lapsus liguae = A slip of the tongue

 a posteriori = derived by reasoning from observed facts.
ad infinitum = without limit.
ad libitum = according to pleasure.
ad nauseam = to a disgusting extent.
ad valorem = according to value.
Addenda = things to be added.
ars gratia artis = art for art's sake.
aude sapere = dare know.
audi alteram partem = hear the other side (one of the principles of natural justice).
cave canem = beware of the dog.
caveat lector = let the reader beware.
caveat venditor = let the seller beware.
corpus delicti = the facts of a crime.
Corrigenda = a list of things to be corrected (in a book).
deus ex machine = a contrived event that resolves a problem at the last moment (literally, "a god from a machine").
dramatis personae = the list of characters in a play.
dum spiro, spero = as long as I breathe, I hope (Cicero).
dura lex, sed lex = the law is harsh, but it is the law.
Ergo = therefore.
Errata = a list of errors (in a book).
et alia = and other things.
et alii (abbreviated et al.) = and others.
et sequentes (abbreviated et seq. or seqq.) = and those that follow.
ex gratia = purely as a favour.
ex nihilo = out of nothing.
ex post facto = retrospectively.
Exeat = permission for a temporary absence.
exempli gratia (abbreviated e.g.) = for example.
fama nihil est celeries = nothing is swifter than a rumour.
Fiat = let it be done.
gaudeamus igitur = so let us rejoice.
honoris causa = as a mark of esteem.
ibidem (abbreviated ibid. in citations of books, etc.) = in the same place.
id est (abbreviated i.e.) = that is.
Idem = the same.
Imprimatur = let it be printed.
in absentia = while absent.
in camera = in private session.
in casu = in this case.
in casu extremae necessitates = in case of extreme necessity.
in extensor = at full length.
in extremis = near death.
in flagrante delicto = in the very act of committing an offence.
in illo tempore = at that time.
in loco extremis = in the farthest place.
in loco parentis = in place of a parent.
in medias res = in the midst of things (Horace).
in memoriam = in memory.
in toto = entirely.
Infra = below or on a later page.
infra dig = unbecoming (slang).
inter alia = among other things.
inter se = among themselves.
inter vivos = during life.
intra muros = within the walls.
locum tenens = one occupying the place (used as an English noun meaning "deputy").
magna carta = Great Charter (issued by King John in 1215, granting various liberties).
mens rea = guilty mind.
mens sana in corpore sano = a sound mind in a sound body.
mirabile dictum = wonderful to relate.
monumentum aere perennius = an immortal work of art or literature (literally, "a monument more lasting than bronze") (Horace).
multi multa; nemo omnia novitmany know many things; no one knows everything.
mutatis mutandis = the necessary changes being made.
ne plus ultra = the highest standard of excellence.
nemine contradicente (abbreviated nem. con.) = unanimously.
nemine dissentiente (abbreviated nem. dis.) = unanimously.
nihil obstat = nothing stands in the way.
nil desperandum = there is no cause for despair (Horace).
Nisi = unless.
nolens volens = whether one likes it or not; willing or unwilling.
non compos mentis = insane.
nota bene (abbreviated NB) = note well.
numero pondere et mensura deus omnia condidit = God created everything by number, weight and measure (Isaac Newton).
obiter dictum = a saying by the way.
omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis = all things are changing, and we are changing with them.
pari passu = equally.
parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus = great promises, but no result or only a ludicrous result
Passim = in various places (in a quoted work).
pax vobiscum = peace be with you.
per annum = per year.
per ardua ad alta = through difficulties to the heights.
per ardua ad astra = through difficulties to the stars.
per capita = by the head.
per centum = per hundred.
per diem = per day.
per mensem = per month.
per omnia saecula saeculorum = for ever and ever.
per se = taken alone.
persona non grata = a non-acceptable person.
prima facie = on a first view.
pro bono public = in the public good.
pro forma = for the sake of form.
pro hac vice = for this occasion.
pro rata = according to the rate.
pro se = on one's own behalf.
pro tanto = to that extent.
pro tempore (abbreviated pro tem) = for the time being.
proximo (abbreviated prox.) = of the next month.
Qua = in the capacity of.
quantum in me fuit = I have done my best.
Quasi = as if.
quo in casu = in which case.
quo vadis? = where are you going?
quod erat demonstrandum (abbreviated QED) = which was to be proved.
quod erat faciendum (abbreviated QEF) = which was to be done.
ratio decidendi = the reason for the decision.
res ipsa loquitur = the thing speaks for itself.
salve (plural salvete) = hail; welcome.
semper fidelis = always faithful.
sensu stricto = in a narrow or strict sense.
seqq = and those that follow.
seriatim = one after another in order.
si vis pacem, para bellum = if you want peace, prepare for war.
sic = thus (used in quoted passages to indicate that an error has been deliberately reproduced).
sic transit gloria mundi = thus passes the glory of the world.
silentium est aureum = silence is golden.
silva rerum = an assorted collection of facts.
sui generis = of its own kind.
tempus fugit = time flies.
tempus fugit, mors venit = time passes, death advances.
uberrimae fidei = of the utmost good faith.
ultimo (abbreviated ult.) = of the previous month.
ultra vires = beyond the power.
vade mecum = a constant companion.
vale (plural valete) = farewell.
velle est posse = where there is a will, there is a way.
veni, vidi, vici = I came, I saw, I conquered (Caesar).
virgo intacta = virgin.

Quote of the day:
" There's nothing more dangerous than a closed mind"

Word of the day :
agent provocateur (noun) = a person who seeks to harm another by provoking them to commit an unlawful or wrong act.  from the french agent provocateur: inciting agent
e.g. In the film Donnie Brasco, Johnny Depp plays an FBI agent who infiltrates the Mafia and encourages their criminality; Depp is an agent provocateur.